This blog post was researched and written by World Affairs Council inter, Erin Elliot.
Tomorrow Scotland will hold a referendum on becoming independent from the United Kingdom. Current political polling puts the referendum in a statistical dead heat: there is a 50-50 chance that tomorrow Scotland will be a brand new country.
Scotland has been part of the Kingdom of Great Britain with England and Scotland since the Acts of Union in 1707. Prior to then, it was an independent country united under a single monarch since 1603. The question of independence has always been present in Scottish politics but the recent bid was driven by the Scottish National Party after they won a majority of seats in the 2011 National Parliamentary election. The SNP has led the push for independence since it was founded in 1934 uniting the National Party of Scotland, a left pro-independence party, with the Scottish Party, who are more politically conservative but are in favor of home rule.
This vote is different than past attempts at independence. Prime Minister, David Cameron says the UK will not block the vote. This means that if the referendum passes, Scotland will be on its own once and for all. Given the gravity and finality of this decision, the referendum has the potential to ripple outward through continental Europe and into the rest of the world. There are already factions in Spain, Italy, and Belgium that are expressing interest in starting their own bids for independence. Just last week during Catalonia’s National Day in Spain, there were rallies in the streets of Barcelona. The Northern League in Italy and the Flemish community in Belgium are among others that have expressed self-deterministic desires.
Most observers are focusing on the economic implications of an independent Scotland. Many financial firms are nervous about the effect of Scottish independence on business and have relocated to Great Britain, including the Royal Bank of Scotland. Critics say that Scotland would face a long and difficult challenge in the monetary and fiscal issues alone. Some Scots maintain that they could continue to use the British pound, but Britain would have to give its permission which looks unlikely at this point. Scotland could adopt the Euro, but to do this they would have to join the EU. Also, given the instability of the Eurozone, it would be a risky monetary decision for a new country. They would also have the option of establishing their own currency.
Further analysis of the economic and political implications for Great Britain are equally complicated. If Scotland votes yes, Prime Minister Cameron will suffer political setbacks and pressure to resign for allowing the referendum in the first place. Additionally, if Scotland leaves the United Kingdom it will take the oil industry with it. Cameron’s criticism would be compounded by the loss of this asset. The loss of Scottish seats in British Parliament won’t have a detrimental affect; most of the Scottish seats are in the Labour party, but the Conservative party holds a majority even if Scotland remains in the UK.
On the other hand, Scotland requires a significant amount of British social welfare. If Scotland votes yes, the low income earners in Scotland will be the most vulnerable. Great Britain, however, will be at an advantage because they will no longer have a financial responsibility to Scotland.
There are also other questions about Scotland’s future, such as security, defense, health care, childcare, and education. Concerning foreign policy and international affairs, there is also the question of Scottish membership in the European Union and in NATO. Would independent Scotland seek to become members of either organization? If it did would it be able to join? How long would the process take and what would be the requirements?
Since there are so many practical concerns, it is interesting to see so much popular support in for the referendum. The Economist lends an interesting perspective to the drive for Scottish independence. According to the article, a sweeping sense of nationalism is the driver of the movement for self-determination; practical concerns like the economy and defense are in the periphery. The national identity of Scotland has always been strong, but genuine independence has continued to elude them. As the author suggests, this may be for historical reasons: unlike the Irish, the Scottish have had a relatively good relationship with the British. As such, the incentives to continue to be a part of the United Kingdom have tended to outweigh popular support for independence.
Even if Scotland votes no tomorrow, they still win; their government will become even further devolved from the British Parliament. Scottish Labour, Scottish Conservatives, and Scottish Liberal Democrats have laid out proposals to Scotland as contingency for a no vote expanding upon the Scotland Act of 2012. Most of the proposals would grant more taxation responsibility to Scotland while continuing to allow Britain to manage oil, defense, foreign policy and the economy.
Both sides of the debate have their own web presence and social media campaigns. Yes Scotland, the side favoring independence, and Better Together, the side favoring continued UK partnerships, have continual updates on each of their respective sites and social media pages.
The next twenty-four hours will be a very exciting time for Scotland and we eagerly await the results!
Today is the first day that my work isn’t being punctuated by coos, and the rhythms of feeding and burping my four-month old baby boy. He has started daycare, and I am back to working as most adults with children do: kid-free.
Though my husband and I were lucky to have found a wonderful daycare early in my pregnancy, we soon realized that the start of the baby “academic” year and the end of my very generous maternity leave would leave us without childcare for over a month and a half. So for the past seven weeks, my son and I have benefited from an innovative approach to this gap in childcare: a Babies in the Workplace program.
I first heard about baby-friendly workplaces when an acquaintance worked alongside her infant at Rhiza. Shortly after I learned I was pregnant, I stumbled across the idea again when reading this article written in response to Melissa Meyer, CEO of Yahoo! bringing her newborn to work. As summertime is when my colleagues and I at the World Affairs Council of Pittsburgh collaborate and plan our school year programs, working from home for seven weeks or taking additional time off were not options for me. When I proposed the idea to our CEO and Vice President, they took to it immediately. After ironing out the details and referencing a Babies in the Workplace template from the Parenting in the Workplace Institute, our counsel gave it the okay. Audrey Russo, our board chair, who was responsible for implementing babies at work programs at Rhiza and Maya nearly a decade ago, was delighted.
So it was that my little guy had the opportunity to work with me this summer. He attended our summer program for high school students, the Summer Seminar on Global Issues, where he met 36 students from twenty high schools, including three students and their chaperone from the Roots School in Islamabad. He napped through an otherwise engaging conversation via video conference with Carolyn Miles, CEO of Save the Children, who gave a talk on the crises facing migrants and refugees in the Middle East and on our borders. He smiled when we video conferenced with our partner, Helenne Ulster, the Principal of United Church School in South Africa. He giggled during another video conference with our partner school in Taiwan. He made comments during meetings with Pittsburgh-area teachers. He even had the chance to babble to students in Bangladesh.
Though our organization is small, we work in a large bank building in downtown Pittsburgh. As my son and I came into the building each day, everyone from bankers to security guards greeted our youngest summer intern. It was delightful, and a great way to start the day.
Working with an infant, I found, was both more difficult and much easier than I anticipated. Once we both acclimated to the office, the rhythms of infant life provided a structure to the day. Anything that required concentration could happen during naps or feeding, while meetings worked best with an alert baby, who would also serve to entertain and calm the grownups in the room.
As many working parents have experienced, there simply aren’t enough great options for childcare in the United States. While bringing an infant to work isn’t for everyone, I am incredibly grateful to have had such a wonderful transition. And our youngest summer intern now has a little something for his baby CV.
Pittsburgh is home to 16 honorary consuls (as of May 2014). Honorary consuls are private citizens who serve (without pay) as representatives of foreign governments in major cities without a formal Consulate General. Along with their countries’ official diplomatic efforts, they help to promote relations with the United States while also assisting citizens from the countries they represent.
The countries represented in Pittsburgh are: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Georgia, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Oman, Poland, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, and the United Kingdom. The contact information for the honorary consuls can be found after the jump.
President of the Consular Association:
Mr. Jean-Pierre Collet
Former Consul of France
1328 Cathedral of Learning
Pittsburgh, PA 15260
TEL: (412) 362-8970
FAX: (412) 362-2301
Mr. Edgar Braun
Southpointe Industrial Park
125 Technology Drive
Canonsburg, PA 15317
TEL: (724) 745-7599
FAX: (724) 745-9570
Mrs. Anne Billiet Lackner
Carnegie Office Park, Suite 290
800 North Bell Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA 15106
TEL: (412) 279-2121
FAX: (412) 279-6426
Mrs. Patricia Penka French
Bulgarian Macedonian National
Educational & Cultural Center
449-451 W. 8th Avenue
West Homestead, PA 15120
TEL: (412) 461-6188 (W); (412) 831-5101 (H)
EMAIL: firstname.lastname@example.org or BMNECC@gmail.com
Dr. Marion Vujevich
100 North Wren Drive
Pittsburgh, PA 15243
TEL: (412) 429-2570
FAX: (412) 429-2572
Dr. Carol H. Hochman
650 Smithfield Street, Suite 1180
Pittsburgh, PA 15222
TEL: (412) 855-6581
Mrs. Eva M. Robinson
104 Shanor Heights
Butler, PA 16001
TEL: (724) 283-2274
FAX: (724) 283-2274
Mr. Jean-Dominique Le Garrec
1447 Beechwood Boulevard
Pittsburgh, PA 15217
TEL: (412) 726-5893
Mrs. Mahnaz M. Harrison
112 Westchester Drive
Pittsburgh, PA 15215
TEL: (412) 781-0243
FAX: (412) 782-0424
Mr. Paul Overby
c/o Cohen & Grigsby, P.C.
625 Liberty Avenue, Fifth Floor
Pittsburgh, PA 15222-3152
TEL: (412) 297-4694
FAX: (412) 209-0672
Mr. James J. Lamb
President, Ireland Institute of Pittsburgh
Suite 1207 Investment Building
239 Fourth Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA 15222
TEL: (412) 394-3900
FAX: (412) 394-0502
Prof. Carla E. Lucente, Ph.D.
Fisher Hall, 728
600 Forbes Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA 15282
TEL: (412) 765-0273
FAX: (412) 765-0582
Ms. Simin Yazdgerdi Curtis
The Pittsburgh Middle East Institute
5 Von Lent Place
Pittsburgh, PA 15232
TEL: (412) 654-3523 (Direct); (412) 995-0076 (Main)
FAX: (412) 361-0300
Dr. Jan Napoleon Saykiewicz
825 Rockwell Hall
600 Forbes Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA 15282
TEL: (412) 396-6234
FAX: (412) 396-4764
Mr. Joseph T. Senko
230 Thornberry Circle
Pittsburgh, PA 15234
TEL: (412) 531-2990 (O); (412) 343-5031 (H); (412) 956-6000 (Cell)
FAX: (412) 531-4793
Ms. Petra Mitchell
2000 Technology Drive
Pittsburgh, PA 15219
TEL: (412) 805-5010
FAX: (412) 687-2791
Mr. Mark A. Nordenberg
Chancellor and Chief Executive Officer
University of Pittsburgh
107 Cathedral of Learning
Pittsburgh, PA 15260
TEL: (412) 624-4200
FAX: (412) 624-7539
This post was written and researched by World Affairs Council of Pittsburgh intern, Jill Fronk.
September has arrived and is quickly passing by, which mean only one thing for students here in the U.S.—the beginning of school. The new school year, means fresh new school supplies, yes some people would prefer a bouquet of pens and pencils to flowers; a trendy new backpack; and, of course, the perfect first day outfit. For the younger elementary school kids, there is the mandatory picture at the bus stop for the parents to have for their memories. First days also hold the possibility of delicious treats either in your packed lunch or waiting for you when you get home to tell your family about your first day of school. These traditions go somewhat differently around the world. Here’s a brief tour of the first day of school around the globe.
Children in Italy prepare for their first day of school by rushing out to buy the most fashionable new smock,or “work coat”; book bag; and diary, an agenda to write down all of their assignments. They each wear a ribbon with the color corresponding to the grade they will be entering. Traditionally, but not in all Italian cities, red is for first grade, pink for second, blue for third, green for fourth, and the three colors of the Italian flag (white, green, and red) for fifth.
In Germany, parents or grandparents give their children going into first grade a Schultϋten, or a school cone, to take with them on their first day. Their beautifully decorated cones are usually filled with candy, toys, and school supplies. They were traditionally given to make school a little sweeter with candies and chocolate. Today, they usually have a more practical application with gifts that will be more useful in the classroom, but the gift giver still remembers its original purpose with a few treats stored inside.
September 1st, also known as Knowledge and Skills Day, marks the first day of school in Russia. Children bring bouquets of flowers to their teachers, and attend a special ceremony. The ceremony ends with bells ringing to symbolize the “first bell” of the new school year. If September 1st falls on a Saturday, students are still required to go the ceremony, and actual classes will begin that Monday. Their first lesson focuses on peace; the importance of respecting others, protecting the environment, and the art of cooperation.
Kazakhstan has a similar tradition as Russia, where each student brings one flower to their teacher on the first day to give them a sense of purpose. The teachers gather all of their flowers to form a bouquet that symbolizes the growth they will have together throughout the school year. Children are given special bags for their first day containing treats, pencils, and candles.
Japanese children face one of the longest school years in the world, 250 days. On their first day of elementary school, children are presented with a randoseru (book bag) filled with unique school supplies; origami paper, slippers, and weeding tools. It also holds their first lunch of the year, rice with seaweed sauce and quail eggs, which is meant to bring good luck. Traditionally, girls were given red randoseru and boys were given black ones. Now they come in a variety of colors and styles. They are sometimes passed down to other family members or neighbors. Otherwise, pieces of their randoseru are used to make pencil cases for chuugako, middle school.
Most children in India go to a government school where there are large class sizes and teachers have a tendency to be the most absent person in the class. This doesn’t prevent students from being excited about their first day though. Praveshanotshavan, or Admission Day, as their first day of school is known, means gifts for the kids. The most popular gift, which may seem a little dull to most but an absolute necessity in India, is an umbrella. The beginning of their school year coincides with the beginning of monsoon season.
In Israel, school is considered to be “sweet” especially for those entering the 1st grade. On their first day, they pass through an archway that is made by the older students, and lick letters that are formed with honey off of a slate. This is meant to represent that “learning is sweet”. Balloons are also released by the older students during the ceremony.
Before school starts in early February, school supplies are purchased in advance because of the huge rise in inflation duringthis time of year. The price of school supplies can differ by 500% depending on the store you frequent. Students in the larger cities navigate big traffic jams and police who control the chaos that always come with the much anticipated first day.
If you want to learn more about education around the world, check out this past World Affairs Council of Pittsburgh blog post, Back to School from Around the World.
China seems to have little remorse about violating several World Trade Organization principles of free trade and open market access. Its citizens’ are forbidden to access to foreign sites—including social media sites—while foreigners are able to access Chinese sites. Aynne Kokas, an expert on Chinese Internet policies at Rice University in Texas, says this is contributable to the expanding trade gap between America and China. “[China’s] own rising powers on the Web are not only free to operate across the U.S., but also have raised more than $40 billion on U.S. stock exchanges,” she said.
Turkish and Chinese Social Media Users Bypass Crackdowns
This video produced by PBS News Hour features First Lady Michelle Obama in China; she spoke to professors and students about the importance of free speech to the strength of a country’s voice.
China has incurred some major long-term consequences pertaining to basic human rights and trade relations, here’s what I consider to be the top two.
1. Repression of Individual Freedoms
China’s cyber-border guards demonstrate a lead repression of individual online freedoms, according to Hosuk Lee-Makiyama, a legal scholar who was a senior adviser on WTO issues to the EU leadership. Here are some realities of the situation.
- Reports indicate that internet usage in China is patrolled by tens of thousands of cyber-sentries.
- China prevents 600 million internet users from joining Facebook, emailing sites, and photo sharing sites.
- Cyber users are blocked from over 18,000 worldwide websites.
- Cyber blockages are only prevent mainland readers from visiting foreign websites, not prevent foreigners from accessing Chinese sites.
2. Diminishing International Trade Relationships
The United States has taken some major action against China in the last few months. U.S. officials say Chinese spies are responsible for nearly $300 billion a year in stolen intellectual property and lost business to American companies, and who have cost Americans jobs. They’ve launched a counterintelligence campaign against China. U.S. hackers at the National Security Agency (NSA) have broken into Chinese computers in order to find out what information has been stolen from American companies
- bring criminal charges against foreign government officials
- sophisticated cyber sleuthing and the cooperation of American companies, which are willing to work with federal investigators and explain what damage they suffered as the victims of economic espionage.
- appealing to Chinese courts after indicting 5 Chinese militants for cyber espionage, China still maintains its blocks on foreign cyber platforms.
This post was written and researched by World Affairs Council intern, Jalyn Evans
Over a billion Muslims around the world are ending their season of Ramadan at sundown on July 28th. Ramadan is a 30-day period in which Muslims fast–abstaining from daytime food and drink. Learning about this sacred time for Muslims provides us with a background for understanding the values, ethics and principles of Muslim cultures around the world.
Deeper than Hunger
Abstaining from food and drink is only one manifestation of fasting during Ramadan. The Muslim word for fast literally means “to refrain.” A time to refocus attention on God and purify the spirit, Muslims are called to practice self-restraint from bad habits and ways of thinking, such as gossiping or holding grudges, during Ramadan. Muslims also seek renewal for broken ties between family and friends, making right any ill feelings toward others. Ramadan is a time for spiritual growth, reflection, and self-evaluation.
Ramadan in Pittsburgh!
The Islamic Center of Pittsburgh celebrated the Muslim holy month of Ramadan on Sunday, July 13th, during its annual Humanity Day. At this celebration, Educators were honored for promoting acceptance and understanding of different faiths. Read the full article here.
The Center hosts an array of Muslim programs and events reaching out to those who are interested in the Muslim faith, these include Arabic classes and community outreach efforts.
Located at 4100 Bigelow Boulevard, the Center offers tours and is open for all regular prayer times. Click here to learn more.
Written and researched by World Affairs Council Intern, Jill Fronk
It has been a little over two decades since the end of the Cold War, and already a new burst of cold air is beginning to blow through. The crisis in the Ukraine is drawing a line in the sand with the G7 nations on one side and the BRICS on the other. The G7 is a group of financial and economic ministers from Western nations, formerly the G8 before they ousted Russia over its current actions. BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa) are emerging economic and political powers, who make up a new growing bloc of influence and power. These emergent powers are a diverse set of governments who struggle to find common ground, but when it comes to a struggle with Western powers they will side with their BRICS compatriots.
All international groups have their moment of coming of age, where the international community recognizes the legitimacy they have to influence world events. BRICS’s moment was during the Syrian crisis, when the majority opposed any further military action out of respect of Syrian sovereignty. Syrian President Al-Assad sent a letter to the BRICS’s summit in South Africa in 2013 requesting their help against Western interference in contradiction with the UN Charter. This letter cemented their legitimacy as a global power bloc, and the potential beginning of a new world order. It also began the clear division in goals between BRICS and Western countries, along with political divisions within BRICS itself.
Now there is the separatist movement in the Ukraine, with Russia annexing Crimea much to the condemnation of Western powers. Even with political divisions, historical disagreements with the U.S. and other G7 countries push the remaining BRICS countries towards Russia. It gives rise to old feelings of east against west, the Soviet Union versus the U.S. As the sanctions against Russia continue, Russia turns to China for help to stave off a worsening recession. We all flashback to a rocky Sino – Soviet alliance at the beginning of the Cold War which ended in a war in the 1960s. Only today, their bond is much stronger and sealed in a gas deal that will be paid out in their own domestic currency instead of the U.S. dollar, which is the traditional currency used in trade deals. This is a symbolic move for the BRICS by undercutting the hegemony of the U.S. dollar as the international currency. BRICS have been attempting to overthrow the U.S. dollar for years, but there is not a viable alternative making any change difficult. However the symbolism of using domestic currency is not lost on the U.S.
The Beginning of a New Era
This week at the sixth summit of BRICS countries located in Brazil this year, the separation from the G7 grows wider. Their goal is to finalize plans for the New Development Bank (NDR) and Contingency Reserve Arrangement (CRA) to reduce dependence on Western Institutions. These two agencies will assist developing countries by giving loans for things such as infrastructure projects and economic shock waves from countries like the G7. This is in response to failed attempts to increase BRICS’s influence in global governance especially with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank. A top priority is to ensure equal voting rights within the NDR and CRA which is one of their major issues with Western institutions. These two new international agencies will give developing and emerging economies a new option with the allure of no policy requirements that the IMF and World Bank are infamous for demanding. But really the main goal, is to knock down the U.S. and other G7 countries a peg or two, to show that their time of domination is coming to an end.
Russia’s reactions to G7 pressure over Ukraine can be seen as a signal in the readiness of Russia and the other BRICS countries to counter Western influence. The current state of the world is filled with general uncertainty, economic insecurity, and a sense of unfairness which can be seen in the high number of separatist movements in the last couple of years. The world is ripe for the picking for BRICS this new world division. This leaves an opening for an economic power shift from West to East and the beginning of a new era of bipolarity.